Integrating Social Acceptance of Electricity Grid Expansion into Energy System Modeling

Models of future energy systems and the development of underlying energy scenarios contribute to an answer on the question how a transformation of the energy system can be implemented. Although energy system modelling has a wide influence, the field lacks the consideration of local ecological and societal concerns, such as acceptance issues. In this project, a methodology was developed to integrate social and ecological aspects concerning wind energy into the distribution of future wind energy capacities and electricity transmission grid expansion projects in Germany.
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Integrating Social Acceptance of Electricity Grid Expansion into Energy System Modeling
2013 – 2016
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)  -  Förderprogramm: Sozial-ökologische Forschung (SÖF)

Overview

As a basis for the qualitative as well as the quantitative analysis a georeferenced database was developed. The georeferenced database contains information about the German electricity grid and power plants, structural data such as landscape, settlements, nature reserves and regional data such as population, income, tourism and land use. The use of the database system PostgreSQL with the extension PostGIS allowed the application of geometric operations to link statistical data with geographic information. This georeferenced statistical basis could be used for systematic and scientific analysis of specific regions.

In terms of grid expansion, a measurement for social acceptance was developed and implemented for 19 German districts (Landkreise) and acceptance-based delay assumptions for all German districts were derived. The dimension of social acceptance was integrated through years of delay. On the basis of assumed delays, different electricity grid expansion scenarios could be created. The results show that low delays can only be expected in regard to a few projects in Schleswig-Holstein. Moreover, the findings emphasize the importance of a commitment to grid expansion projects on the part of regional governments.

In terms of wind energy expansion, based on the calculated potential siting area (white area), an algorithm was developed to site different types of wind energy plants in the available area. Two wind expansion scenarios have been developed: one distributing future wind capacities according to technical and economic conditions (economic scenario), and the other based on the regional burden level resulting from wind energy plants (balanced scenario). The development of the burden level as a socio-ecological factor enabled the siting of wind turbines according to an equal burden level in all German districts. It was shown, that this equal distribution led to a shift of capacities from the north-west to the south-east compared to the economic approach.

The modelling results show, that rising delays of grid expansion projects lead to higher amounts of electricity transit and higher usage of conventional power plants, leading to rising CO2-emissions. In terms of wind energy, the modelling results show, that there are relatively small effects of an equal burden distribution compared to an economic distribution of future wind energy plants. This shows, that economic advantages do not outweigh social acceptance.

The main target of the project, to develop a methodology for the integration of socio-ecological factors into energy system modelling, was accomplished. This success is mainly based on intensive cooperation between social science and scientific computing. Using the presented results, region specific expansion pathways can be formulated. The spatial illustration of the scenarios give the opportunity to use such scenario development as a participation instrument.

Publikationen

  • 2016

  • Christ, Marion; Soethe, Martin; Degel, Melanie (2016): Windausbauszenarien unter Berücksichtigung gesellschaftlicher und ökologischer Rahmenbedingungen für die Simulation des deutschen Energiesystems bis 2050. Beitrag zum 14. Symposium Energieinnovation. 10.-12. Februar 2016 TU Graz, Österreich. Langfassung. Technische Universität Graz.

    Windausbauszenarien unter Berücksichtigung gesellschaftlicher und ökologischer Rahmenbedingungen für die Simulation des deutschen Energiesystems bis 2050

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  • Degel, Melanie (2016): Energiewende modellieren: Realität und Akzeptanz. Kurzfassung der Studie: "VerNetzen: Sozial-ökologische, technische und ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende". Berlin: IZT - Institut für Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung (IZT-Text 4-2016).

    Energiewende modellieren: Realität und Akzeptanz

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  • Degel, Melanie; Marion Christ; Liv Becker; Judith Grünert; Clemens Wingenbach (2016): VerNetzen. Sozial-ökologische und technisch-ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende. Projektabschlussbericht. Unter Mitarbeit von 2 Soethe, Martin; Bunke, Wolf-Dieter; Mester, Karoline; Wiese, Frauke. Flensburg: Europa-Universität Flensburg.

    VerNetzen

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  • Christ, Marion; Martin Soethe; Melanie Degel (2016): Windausbauszenarien unter Berücksichtigung gesellschaftlicher und ökologischer Rahmenbedingungen für die Simulation des deutschen Energiesystems bis 2050. In: Institut für Elektrizitätswirtschaft und Energieinnovation (IEE), Technische Universität Graz: EnInnov2016. 14. Symposium Energieinnovation. Energie für unser Europa. 10.-12. Februar 2016 TU Graz, Österreich. Kurzfassungsband. Graz: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz, S. 110-112.

    Windausbauszenarien unter Berücksichtigung gesellschaftlicher und ökologischer Rahmenbedingungen für die Simulation des deutschen Energiesystems bis 2050

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  • Christ, Marion; Martin Soethe; Melanie Degel; Clemens Wingenbach (2016): Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors. In: Wohlgemuth, Volker; Frank Fuchs-Kittowski; Jochen Wittman (Hg.): Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics. Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Cham, Schweiz: Springer International Publishing (Progress in IS), S. 167-180.

    Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors

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  • Mester, Karoline; Marion Christ; Melanie Degel; Wolf-Dieter Bunke (2016): Integrating Social Acceptance of Electricity Grid Expansion into Energy System Modeling: A Methodological Approach for Germany. In: Wohlgemuth, Volker; Frank Fuchs-Kittowski; Jochen Wittman (Hg.): Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics. Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Cham, Schweiz: Springer International Publishing (Progress in IS), S. 115-129.

    Integrating Social Acceptance of Electricity Grid Expansion into Energy System Modeling: A Methodological Approach for Germany

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  • 2015

  • Bunke, Wolf-Dieter; Marion Christ; Melanie Degel (2015): VerNetzen: Sozial-ökologische und technisch-ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende. In: Bundesnetzagentur: Wissenschaftsdialog 2014. Technologie, Landschaft und Kommunikation, Wirtschaft. Bonn, S. 107-127.

    VerNetzen: Sozial-ökologische und technisch-ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende

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  • Degel, Melanie; Marion Christ (2015): VerNetzen: Sozial-ökologische und technisch-ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende. In: BMBF/FONA: „Umwelt- und gesellschaftsverträgliche Transformation des Energiesystems“. Zwischenergebnisse der 33 Forschungsprojekte und der Wissenschaftlichen Koordination. Statuskonferenz BMBF-Fördermaßnahme 2015. Bonn, 15. und 16. September, S. 197-202.

    VerNetzen: Sozial-ökologische und technisch-ökonomische Modellierung von Entwicklungspfaden der Energiewende

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