Energy as Key Element for the Sustainable Development of Megacities - Johannesburg, South Africa (2)

© By Andres de Wet (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons
EnerKey: Energy as a Key Element of an Integrated Climate Protection Concept for the City Region of Gauteng, South Africa
2008 - 2013
German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

Universität Stuttgart Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy - IER (Coordinator)
TÜV-Rheinland Group - TIE
Fraunhofer Institute of Building Physics - IBP
City of Stuttgart
INEP gGmbH - Int. Institute for Sust. Energy Management, Politics, Risk and social Innovations

Associated South African partners:

University of Johannesburg
Municipal Authority of Johannesburg
The Municipality of Tshwane
The Metropolitan Municipality of Ekurhuleni - EMM
Gauteng Department of Local Government and Housing - DLGH
ESKOM - Energy Utility of South Africa
University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre - ERC
CSIR Dept. of Built Environment
Sustainable Energy Africa - SEA


Energy related questions are seen as key challenge in South Africa from various perspectives: Security of supply is a core topic for the thriving industrial nation. Energy poverty and social equity ("electricity for all") has high relevance on the post-apartheid political agenda. Local emissions from coal burning are an important health issue. Poor cooking devices form a severe threat due to the risk of large shack fires in informal settlement. Lately the issue of climate change has become more and more important - South Africa relying almost entirely on coal and being number 12 globally of the biggest CO2 emittants. It emits roughly 40% of the CO2 emissions of the African continent.

Cities play a crucial role for the further development of energy use and CO2 emissions as they are centers of intense economic growth, technology implementation and intellectual capacities. In the pre-phase of the EnerKey project the key players in the energy and climate change area of research, such as cities administrations and implementing agents (business and NGO) were brought together and developed a consensus that progress in the sustainability of the Global City Region of Gauteng by activating a collaborative, integrative and interdisciplinary approach. Within the EnerKey project, the Global City Region of Gauteng comprises the three metropolises Johannesburg, Ekurhuleni and Tshwane (JET-cities). In order to achieve a progress in the sustainability, a considerable network and competence cluster of South African and German research institutes, cities, NGOs and companies was put together with a strong political support. Further it was agreed upon the development and application of a common strategy targeting an effective energy efficient and climate change oriented structure in the Global City Region of Gauteng, which is also the main aim of the EnerKey project. This shall be achieved by

  • a strategic collaboration of research institutes, the Gauteng Province and JET city administrations as well as implementing agents of South Africa and Germany,
  • the development and use of adapted and adequate decision support tools, and
  • the implementation, monitoring and iterative improvement of pilot projects and applications.

Within the EnerKey project strong working groups from R&D (universities, free research institutes), administration and other implementing agents (business, NGO) work together in an integrated and cooperative way.

The EnerKey project is set up in eight modules. The technical potentials for Gauteng's energy furture are integrated into a holistic picture by the means of scenario planning (in Module 1 “Integrated energy- and climate protection planning”). The socio-economic counter part is Module 2 “Stakeholders and Socio-Economic Drivers” which is steered by IZT. By means of a participatory stakeholder process, Module 2 will link up feed the following questions into EnerKey:

  • Which economic and societal future trends will be important for today’s energy and climate protection planning?”What could the future look like?”
  • Which visions do Gauteng’s stakeholders have of the regions future? ”Where do we want to go?” Which pilot projects were successful and could help to meet our goals?”
  • What can we learn from past? How can successful approaches be implemented on a large scale?”How do we get there?”

The EnerKey Module 2 – “Stakeholders and Socio-Economic Drivers” mainly addresses the non-technical aspects of the decision and implementation process. Policy options are both investigated and actively supported.

A more detailed description of IZT's tasks with in Enerkey can be found in the Module description (download).

More information on the EnerKey project as a whole can be found at


  • 2014

  • Knoll, Michael; Johannes Rupp (2014): EnerKey Long-term Perspective Group (ELPG). A Format to Introduce Long-Term Thinking in Today's Decision-Making. In: Mahrin, Bernd: Capacity Development. Approaches For Future Megacities. Berlin: Jovis (Future megacities, 3), S. 28-36.

    EnerKey Long-term Perspective Group (ELPG)

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  • Rupp, Johannes; Michael Knoll (2014): Challenges of Interdepartmental Collaboration to Foster Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings. In: Schinkel, Ulrike; Angela Jain; Sabine Schröder (Hg.): Local Action and Participation. Approaches and lessons learned from participatory projects and action research in future megacities. Berlin: Jovis (Future megacities, 4), S. 62-76.

    Challenges of Interdepartmental Collaboration to Foster Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings

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  • 2012

  • Knoll, Michael; Rupp, Johannes; Mujakachi, Lynda (2012): EnerKey Impact Assessment. Results of Online-Survey. Berlin - Johannesburg, December 2012.

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  • Kuzmenko, Svetlana; Knoll, Michael; Rupp, Johannes (2012): The EnerKey School Project - Materials on Energy and Climate Education. An Overview. Berlin.

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